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Table 1 Referred specimens of 11 fossil and 83 extant ruminant mandibles used for RWA. The feeding categories and the body mass are provided according to the literature, excepted for Gelocus villebramarensis for which body mass is calculated with the method of Legendre (1989). (f), fossil; (e), extant; (Sb), selective browser; (Fl), folivore; (Mx), mixed feeder; (Gr), grazer. Confident feeding categories of Gelocus villebramarensis, Dorcatherium naui, and Leptomeryx evansi are unknown in the literature. However, based on their bunoselenodont molars, we consider that these three taxa likely were selective browsers (Sb ?)

From: Iberomeryx minor (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from the Early Oligocene of Soulce (Canton Jura, NW Switzerland): systematics and palaeodiet

Ruminantia species Family Housing institution n Diet Body mass (kg) References
Pecora
Alces alces (e) Cervidae CI R-584-20 1 Fl 500–600 Franzmann (1981), Janis (1986)
Bison antiquus (f) Bovidae ANSP 12976 1 Gr 500–700 Meagher (1986), Rivals et al. (2007)
Bos taurus (e) Bovidae 2 Mx 300 Janis (1986, personal communication), Anne-Sophie Vernon
Capreolus capreolus (e) Cervidae MHNF 4 Fl 25 Gordon and Illius (1988), Fortelius and Solounias (2000)
Cephalophus natalensis (e) Bovidae NMB 1 Sb 12–14 Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Cephalophus silvicultor (e) Bovidae NMB 3 Sb 43–80 Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Cephalophus zebra (e) Bovidae NMB 2 Sb 15–20 Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Dicrocerus elegans (f) Cervidae 1 Fl 50 Heizmann et al. (1996), Kaiser and Rössner (2007), Costeur and Legendre (2008)
Dremotherium feignouxi (f) Moschidae NMB MA 1 Fl 15 Prothero (2007, personal communication) Florent Hiard
Dremotherium guthi (f) Moschidae IPHEP LM.1968 MA.1 1 Fl 11–16 Jehenne (1987), Martinez and Sudre (1995), Prothero (2007)
Gazella gazella (e) Bovidae NMB 4 Mx 15–20 Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Gazella dorcas (e) Bovidae NMB 4 Mx 15–23 Janis (1986), Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Gazella soemmeringi (e) Bovidae NMB 1 Mx 35–46 Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Gazella subgutturosa (e) Bovidae NMB 2 Mx 20–43 Kingswood and Blank (1996)
Gazella thomsoni (e) Bovidae NMB 1 Mx 17–30 Janis (1986), Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Gelocus villebramarensis (f) Gelocidae IPHEP Vil.1970-121 1 Sb ? 7 Brunet and Jehenne (1976), this study
Hydropotes inermis (e) Cervidae NMB 7 Mx 8–12 Janis (1986), Gordon and Illius (1988)
Madoqua saltiana (e) Bovidae NMB 1 Fl 3–4 Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Mazama nemorivaga (e) Cervidae 1 Sb 8–30 Matthew (1908), Eisenberg (2000)
Moschus moschiferus (e) Moschidae NMB 5 Fl 4–12 Gordon and Illius (1988), Prothero (2007)
Muntiacus muntjak (e) Cervidae NMB 6 Fl 7–12 Gordon and Illius (1988)
Neotragus moschatus (e) Bovidae NMB 1 Fl 4–9 Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Odocoileus virginamus (e) Cervidae NMB 3 Fl 45–65 Janis (1986), Smith (1991)
Oreotragus oreotragus (e) Bovidae NMB 3 Mx 5–16 Janis (1986), Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Ourebia ourebi (e) Bovidae NMB 3 Gr 8–21 Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Procervulus dichotomus (f) Cervidae BSP 1979 XV 555 1 Mx 20 Rössner (1995), Costeur and Legendre (2008)
Puda puda (e) Cervidae NMB 1 Sb 10 Eisenberg (2000)
Raphicerus melanotis (e) Bovidae NMB 1 Mx 9–11 Janis (1986), Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Saiga tatarica (e) Bovidae NMB 2 Gr 35 Gordon and Illius (1988), Sokolov (1974)
Sylvacapra grimmia (e) Bovidae NMB 2 Fl 11–26 Janis (1986), Gagnon and Chew (2000)
Tragulina
Bachitherium cf. curtum (f) Bachitheriidae NMB Qu.B.63 1 Sb 7–8 Blondel (1996, 1998)
Dorcatherium naui (f) Tragulidae 1 Sb ? 32 Gentry et al. (1999), Rössner (2007), Costeur and Legendre (2008)
Hyemoschus aquaticus (e) Tragulidae NMB 2 Sb 12 Janis (1986), Gordon and Illius (1988)
Iberomeryx minor (f) Tragulidae NMB Sc.118 1 Sb 3–4 Martinez and Sudre (1995), this study
Leptomeryx evansi (f) Leptomerycidae AMNH 11870 1 Sb ? 3 Frick (1937), Zanazzi and Kohn (2008)
Moschiola meminna (e) Tragulidae NMB 4 Sb 5 Janis (1986), Rössner (2007)
Nanotragulus loomsi (f) Hypertragulidae AMNH 31525 1 Sb 3 Frick (1937), Métais and Vislobokova (2007)
Tragulus javanicus (e) Tragulidae NMB 12 Sb 1–4 Janis (1986), Gordon and Illius (1988)
Tragulus kanchil (e) Tragulidae NMB 3 Sb 4 Meijaard and Sheil (2007)
Tragulus napu (e) Tragulidae NMB 1 Sb 2 Meijaard and Sheil (2007)