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Table 2 Geographic and stratigraphic distribution of the largest European fossil viperids, along with their respective maximum vertebral CL

From: New material of Laophis crotaloides, an enigmatic giant snake from Greece, with an overview of the largest fossil European vipers

Taxon Locality Age Maximum centrum length (CL) (mm) References
Laophis crotaloides (KB 3 specimen) Megalo Emvolon, Greece Early Pliocene (MN 15) 16.30 This study
Laophis crotaloides (lost holotype) Megalo Emvolon, Greece Early Pliocene (MN 15) 15 Owen (1857) and Szyndlar (1991)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Na Burguesa-1 (Mallorca), Spain Pliocene (MN 15/MN 16) 15a Torres et al. (2014)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Calo den Rafelino (Mallorca), Spain Pliocene (MN 15/MN 16) 12.70 Bailon et al. (2010)
Daboia maxima (‘Daboia complex’) Layna, Spain Early Pliocene (MN 15) 11.80 Szyndlar (1988) and Szyndlar and Rage (1999)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Langenau, Germany Early Miocene (MN 4) 10.50 Szyndlar and Rage (1999)
Viperidae indet. (‘Daboia complex’) Vieux-Collonges, France Early to middle Miocene (MN 4/MN 5) 10.20 Szyndlar and Rage (1999)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Tourkobounia 1, Greece Late Pliocene (MN 16) 10.10 Szyndlar (1991)
Macrovipera lebetina (‘oriental vipers complex’) Aetokremnos, Cyprus Holocene 10.07 Bailon (1999)
Viperidae indet. (‘Oriental vipers complex’) Vallée de la Canterrane, France Pliocene (undetermined) 9.67 Bailon (1991)
Macrovipera sarmatica (‘oriental vipers complex’) Calfa, Moldova Late Miocene (MN 9) 9.40 Zerova et al. (1987) and Szyndlar (1991)
Macrovipera kuchurganica (‘oriental vipers complex’) Kuchurgan, Ukraine Early Pliocene (MN 14) 9.10 Zerova et al. (1987) and Szyndlar (1991)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) La Grive, France Middle Miocene (MN 7/MN 8) 8.70 Szyndlar and Rage (1999)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Rustavi, Georgia Late Miocene (MN 10) 8.60 Zerova et al. (1987) and Szyndlar and Rage (2002)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Artenay, France Early Miocene (MN 4) 8.60 Szyndlar and Rage (1999)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Iles Medas, Spain Late Pliocene (MN 16) 8.40 Bailon (1991)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Steinheim, Germany Middle Miocene (MN 7/MN 8) 8.30 Szyndlar and Rage (1999)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Maramena, Greece Late Miocene (MN 13) 8.10 Szyndlar (1995)
Viperidae indet. (‘oriental vipers complex’) Sandelzhausen, Germany Middle Miocene (MN 6) 8.10 Szyndlar and Rage (1999)
  1. aIt is not possible to know the CL of the Na Burguesa-1 vertebra because it is incomplete. Torres et al. (2014) provide a measurement of the distance from the anterior tip to the prezygapophysis to the posterior tip of the postzygapophysis: 15.1 mm. This distance is smaller than the CL in viperid snakes, a fact that was also reevaluated by additional measurements in the vertebrae of Agkistrodon piscivorus (MDHC 103), Bitis rhinoceros (MDHC 100) and Macrovipera lebetina (MDHC 317)