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Table 1 Approximate initial pore-water concentrations and direction of chemical gradients

From: 5-year chemico-physical evolution of concrete–claystone interfaces, Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

Material Age range Ca2+ Mg2+ Na+ K+ SO4 2− Cl CO3 2− OH
OPC 0.04–1310 24–2.9 < 26–90 137–209 66–4.5 < ~0.05 >200
ESDRED 0.04–1310 9.2-29 0–0.005 100–22 186–11 2–1.8 < ~0.05 180–7*
Gradient  
OPA   12.7 14.3 204 2.3 11.8 237 ~0.4 ~10−7
  1. Concentrations in mmol/l; age range in days; < indicates below detection; first arrow (or pair) indicates direction of gradient at early time, second arrow at later times; long arrow is for ESDRED, short arrow for OPC
  2. aFormate is also significant as anionic charge carrier